Staying comfortable outside involves a lot more than just having a nice place to sit and good food in your stomach. Ultimately, none of that really matters if you can’t regulate your body temperature.
A lot of people think they’ll be fine if they just throw on a big fluffy coat when it’s cold outside, or stick to a T-shirt and shorts when the weather is mild. But what happens when that coat isn’t keeping you warm enough (or too warm), and you’re starting to get goosebumps in that T-shirt now that the sun is setting? You’re in for a miserable and potentially dangerous time.
This is where the layering system comes in. If you’re planning a trip somewhere cold or with extreme temperature changes, you’ll want to check out the information below.
Layering System Considerations
Not all layering is created equal, because not all humans are created equal. The kinds of layers you’ll want to have with you depends on a number of factors including how much you’ll be exerting yourself and your metabolism (aka, do you tend to feel hot or cold throughout the day?)
Regardless of how you answer these questions, you’ll want to fill these three categories when you start thinking about your layering system:
Base Layer: This is what will keep you dry.
Middle Layer: This is how you stay insulated.
Outer Layer: This is what will protect you from the wind and rain.
Even if you don’t think it’s necessary for you to have all three of these, it’s good to have them with you just in case the weather decides to take a turn. Better to be safe than sorry!
Managing Moisture: Base Layer
The base layer is what’s going to keep you dry when you start to sweat. You’ll want to find something with wicking properties so that your shirt doesn’t just soak in that moisture and keep you constantly damp. Not only is it uncomfortable, but it can make you feel chilled and possibly lead to hypothermia, defeating the whole purpose of the layering system.
Wicking vs Breathable
First, it’s good to understand the difference between “wicking” and “breathable” fabrics. Any material that has wicking properties is actively working to move moisture away from your body so that it can evaporate, which keeps you cool. Breathable materials simply allow air to travel freely through it, and may or may not wick moisture from your skin. Typically, the best wicking fabrics are also breathable. Polyester and nylon are good synthetic options, whereas merino wool and silk are natural. What you choose ultimately comes down to personal preference, as there doesn’t tend to be much difference between these materials in how they perform.
Insulation: Middle Layer
What’s the point in making your own body heat if you can’t keep it next to you? That’s where the middle layer comes in. Its sole purpose is to trap heat so that you can stay nice and toasty, even in subzero temperature.
Generally speaking, the thicker your middle layer is, the better it will insulate you. There are some materials that are better suited to this job than others, and we’ll take a look at a few of the most popular.
Fleece is a great option because it dries fast, and still insulates even when wet. However, it is very breathable, which seems like a bad choice since we’re trying to keep that cold air out. This isn’t a problem, though, if you’re wearing an outer layer. Many cold weather tents follow this “multi-layered” design to help trap heat, as well.
The other popular choice is down. Anyone who’s ever owned a down jacket knows how incredibly warm it is, even if it doesn’t feel like there’s a lot of material there. It compresses easily, and it’s already stuffed inside a shell, so it’s mostly wind and waterproof. The only downside is that if it does get wet, it completely loses its ability to insulate.
Precipitation Protection: Outer Layer
While the middle layer is meant to keep the heat in, the outer layer is designed to keep water and wind out. This is great because if either of these things were allowed to penetrate, you’d get very cold very fast. Most outer shells are coated with a waterproof layer so you don’t have to worry about getting soaked.
Most people opt for either water resistant or waterproof shells that are breathable. The breathable aspect is important if you’ll be moving around a lot and sweating, otherwise there’s no outlet for your perspiration. This essentially makes your wicking inner layer useless because there’s nowhere for that moisture to escape.
This applies to your camping gear as well. Finding a good waterproof tent involves more than making sure rain stays out – you need to make sure moisture doesn’t stay trapped inside either.
Hands, Feet, and Head
All of this information is well and good for keeping your core warm, but what about your fingers and toes? Thankfully the same principle applies for this layering system as well.
For your head, a single hat should be all you need to prevent heat loss. If you’re going somewhere exceptionally cold, though, consider wearing a skull cap with a thicker fleece or wool hat on top.
Glove and sock liners should become your new best friends if you want to keep your fingers and toes warm. This is especially important because these are the places that you’re most susceptible to get frostbite. The liners will help to keep your extremities dry, which is vital for protecting against both hypothermia and frostbite. Make sure you’re not wearing anything too tight fitting either, as adequate blood flow is necessary for staying warm. Cover up with some thick gloves and a good pair of winter boots, and you’ll be good to go.
If you’re worried you might be getting frostbite anyway, get inside immediately or move to a warmer area. Sometimes this isn’t possible, though, especially if you’re out camping for several days. That’s why it’s vital to make sure you have the proper gear to stay warm and safe. Take the time to review the things you’ll be bringing with you, and always have spare layers in case you get cold or wet.
Warm Weather Layering
Keep in mind that the layering system isn’t just for cold weather – it can be useful when it’s hot outside too! While you might not feel like wearing long johns in the summer, there are plenty of other options for more airy inner layers. Even though it might feel a little warmer initially, the wicking feature will help to keep you cool and dry.
Looking for more info to help you prepare for your next trip? Check out these guides for useful tips!
How to Go Camping: A Guide for your Next Adventure
10 Essentials for Safety in the Wilderness